Every ending is a new beginning

Time flies, it is almost end of the semester and we are going to blog about the overview of this subject as an ending of it. This is the second time I have to blog weekly. To be honest the first time when I’m given this kind of assessment I feel quite happy because it is something different from what we usually do. But as time goes by I started to feel lazy to blog. However, I think this consider as one of a good assessment. Why so?  As a student we tend to not listen to what lecturer teaching in the class, and only find out what it is about when close to exam or we need to do assignment. Blogging is different, we have to understand every of the topic so that we can talk about it. Without reading the lecture slides, the require reading and find some additional reading we wouldn’t know what it is. I think it is good for me, because I’m that kind of lazy student who will only find out what the topic about when I really need it. I further understand each topic whenever I blog about it.

Flash back to the topic I blogged before, the topic that I remember the most is pink washing. I don’t why but this topic still fresh in my mind although it’s a topic long time ago. This topic is about the business using breast cancer as a marketing tool. I personally think it is not ethic because the businesses claimed that they use this as fund raising but in fact only a very small portion of the money go to the fund raising. Usually I won’t buy anything that is a cause marketing product, I rather donate directly to any organization. The second topic that comes into my mind is citizen journalism because I’m doing this topic for another assignment. This topic is basically about everyone in the society today can act as journalism because of the social media. We update status or tweet about something instantly all the time when we witness something or something happens on us. Lastly, the topic that I could remember is e-waste. This is because I just blog about it recently so I still can remember it quite clearly. Well, we are one of them creating the mass, using all the electronic gadgets like smartphone, laptop, television and others. This topic actually let me realize that our enjoyment leads to people suffer for us. Anyway I’m not that kind of technology people that change phone or laptop often. I usually use my phone for 3 years only I will change a new model and for the laptop as long as it is still usable I’m fine with it.

Before I end this post, I want to wish all the best to my fellow classmates who graduating this semester. Hope they could achieve their dreams and nice meeting them in Inti College. Lastly, see u again next semester Miss Rohayu, happy to be your student again for my last semester of degree.

Image URL: http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m8wq1hjinQ1qm3e74o1_1280.jpg

The e-waste mess!

The global appetite for electronic goods and the increasingly limited life of goods have led to the creation of many e-waste lands throughout the world. Yes, no doubt you are one of them. The advances of technology bring us to the e-waste land. Why? Well, if you are not using a smart phone today people will think that you are so outdated. Some of the people even change their phone once a new model release such as iphone freak. Even though their current phone still alright, they tend to change it anyway if there’s a new model coming out just for the sake of showing that they are following the trend maybe? BUT! They wouldn’t know the story behind their waste. A mountain of old electronic equipment dumped by us was found in Ghana in West Africa. The e-waste is poisoning everything around it. This includes the children burning the wires to try and get at the valuable metal inside and acrid smoke drifts across the Agbogbloshie area of the capital Accra, and even the city’s main food market (SBS Dateline 2011). In the article of Maxwell and Miller (2012), they mentioned that collecting the valuable metal can cause serious health risk to many parts of our body and in addition to birth defects and disrupted biological development in children. In short, we indirectly put the children in danger.


Image URL: http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/e-waste-3.jpg

How do you feel if you are the one living in this environment? Or maybe your child in the future surrounded by all these materials? The moment when we are enjoying with our new gadgets, there are peoples suffering for us. According to DiRamio (2008a), whenever the industry makes a product more efficient, a whole line of products becomes outdated, which then becomes part of the 20 million to 50 million tons of e-waste generated worldwide each year. Manufacturers are the ones that are in the best position to affect the environmental impacts of their products however some people claim that it is unfair for them to take on the burden of being environmentally responsible for their own obsolete products (DiRamio 2008b). In my opinion, it is fair for the manufacturers to take this responsibility. They should overcome this problem by finding a good solution for it. For instance they could use more recyclable material and fewer toxins. By this they can reduce the number of e-waste and the fewer toxins could decrease the health problems of the workers as well. A number of global IT and mobile technology manufacturers including Dell, Samsung, Hewlett Packard, Nokia, Sony-Ericsson among others have committed to phasing out the use of hazardous chemicals, flame retardants and PVC (Thomas 2009). This can be a good example for other manufacturers to learn about. Not only the manufacturers are responsible in this global issue, every human had to be ethical in buying electronic gadgets. It is really a waste by dumping the old gadget when a new model is coming out if the old one is still usable. We should practice a habit like buy it only when we need but not when we want. Besides, we as the customers should choose to buy less wasteful products, repairing, reusing or recycling products at the end of their useful life.

Image URL: http://www.liverpool.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0016/3283/E-cycleyoure-waste.jpg


DiRamio, D 2008a, ‘E-waste: Whose problem is it?‘, Communications News, vol.45, no.6, p36, accessed 6/6/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f8c47c0d-a386-4bc4-88ce-2029081fee72%40sessionmgr13&vid=1&hid=9

DiRamio, D 2008b, ‘Green giants take on e-waste‘, Communications News, vol.45, no.8, p36, accessed 6/6/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=84436d7e-54a3-43a4-9b41-e0cc6e4c17a9%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=9

Maxwell, R & Miller, T 2012, Greening the Media, Oxford University Press, United State of America.

Thomas, P 2009, ‘Cyanide for gold: Dealing with E-waste’, Media Development, vol.56, no.4, pp39-43, accessed 6/6/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6d5b4146-2080-43c4-8ebf-e6967798b6e5%40sessionmgr10&vid=1&hid=22

Hey, watch out! You are under my sight!

The social media such as Facebook and Twitter act as a platform that allows us to express whatever we want without filter or approval. Hence, problems arise when there is no one moderating it. As online conversations and interactions became more popular, companies and brands view this as an opportunity for engagement. Online exchanges between users and broadcasters have become potent symbols of public service broadcasting’s increased relevance, inclusiveness and accountability (Martin 2012). The companies use these opportunities to further understand the user and try to satisfy them. Not only the broadcast company, many others company such as airline companies, food and beverage companies and so on are doing the same thing as well. However, it is important for the company to moderate the users’ comments and provide feedback to them. By doing so, they could enhance relationship with the customer as well. It is important for the company to update their website or Twitter or Facebook page from time to time to increase the interactivity of the users. In the article of Couldry, the author mentioned that if there is no one listening to the process of interaction, an interactive website actually worth nothing. Here I provide two examples that I found it on Facebook. It was a comparison between two airline companies.


From the photo above, we could clearly see both companies are making announcement on their Facebook and they receive some complaints. AirAsia did nothing when receiving the complains, no one moderating the comments while on the other hand, when Malaysia Airlines receive complain, they provide feedback to the customer the next day. When there is someone moderating the conversation, the company reputation will eventually go better. AirAsia on the other hand people are complaining their customer service is terrible yet they do nothing. This will definitely make the customers lose confident on them and reputation of the company becoming worst. We are no longer in the era which receives the content passively. People nowadays actively engage in generating content and giving out opinions. Hence it is important in moderating the content.

Martin (2012) discussed that ABC staff are very cautious about publishing user comments, regarding them as potential threats to institutional credibility. Moreover, the task of moderating them are editorially challenging as well. Whatever we are doing in the public for instance updating a status in Facebook or tweet about something in Twitter, we are watching by people. Especially when you are famous and people know about you, the media will enlarge a single mistake they made. Hence it is important for us to talk carefully to avoid some unnecessary argument. I found one example which the Los Angeles Kings tweeted a rape joke and apologize for the tweet later on. According to Wyshynski (2013), The Kings deleted the tweet and later tweeted, “We apologize for the tweets that came from a guest of our organization. They were inappropriate and do not reflect the L.A. Kings.” Ryder who actually tweets about this also made apologize in his personal twitter account.


Image URL: http://sports.yahoo.com/blogs/nhl-puck-daddy/la-kings-apologize-kevin-ryder-sexual-assault-joke-065018222.html

I think it is important for every individual to think before they talk. They should be responsible for everything they said. We can’t take back whatever we said. Even if we posted something and deleted it, people will still remember. As for those companies as well, it is important for them to moderate the comments in maintaining a good customer relationship. Moderating comments is important in order to maintain a good reputation and of course avoid some unpleasant thing happen.


Couldry, N 2009, Rethinking the politics of voice, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 23:4, 579-582

Martin, F 2012, ‘Vox Populi, Vox Dei: ABC Online and the risks of dialogic interaction’, in Histories of Public Service Broadcasters on the Web, editors, N. Brugger and M. Burns. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 177-192

Wyshynski, G 2013, LA Kings apologize for Kevin Ryder’s sexual assault joke on Twitter, accessed 29/5/2013, http://sports.yahoo.com/blogs/nhl-puck-daddy/la-kings-apologize-kevin-ryder-sexual-assault-joke-065018222.html

What’s wrong with the white?

The colour meaning of white is purity, its basic feature is equality and fairness. However, is the media white enough in being fair to everyone? This week, we gonna talk about the white bread media. So does it something that we can put into the mouth? No no, it’s something related to the media. Well, put the media aside and I believe every one of us is racist sometime. For example, I tend to distant myself from those foreigners whenever I see them. Yea they might not harm me but there are too many cases happen in our country to make me feel that foreigner will harm me. As in Australia too, racism in Australia happens all the time. Creative Spirits (n.d.) shows that 75% of Aboriginal people who experience racism in their everyday lives.

The article of Dreher mentioned that the depth and consistency of criticism of media performance in regard to multicultural Australia are important indicators of the significance of the media for our understandings and experiences of diversity and difference. Besides, media matter because they shape the understandings and action. Well, it is true that media play a critical role in the society today. Media tell us how society sees us and at the meantime, tell us how to behave in society. Most of the time we understand and know what is happening around the world through the media, hence they media portrayal of everything bring a huge impact to our life.

According to Owusu (2010), youth nowadays spend hours or more than that in a day consuming media, much of it with messages about race and culture. Social media is a very powerful tool to influence their thought and behavior. Without the ability to comprehend these messages, powerful political and corporate press machines may be too easy to sway the youth. Group differentiation might lead to stereotyping, resulting in unfavorable, and even prejudicial responses to outgroup members in the context of processing social information (Mastro & Tukachinsky 2011).

 Welcome to Melbourne ... Aboriginal actors, from left,  Natasha Waganeen, Jada Alberts, Frances Djulibing and Djamangi Gaykamangu.

Image URL: http://www.theage.com.au/entertainment/theatre/taxi-drivers-bar-aboriginal-actors-20130502-2iu42.html

One of the cases happens in Australia was raised during the lecture which a group of prominent Aboriginal actors have been repeatedly refused fare by taxi drivers in Southbank and racially abused on a St Kilda tram while making their way back to work. However, the Victorian Taxi Directorate said industry regulations clearly stipulate that drivers must accept all fares, regardless of how far the passenger wants to travel (Cooke & Griffin 2013).


Source: http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/people/racism-in-aboriginal-australia#toc0

Refer back to the poll above, 77% of people thinks that Australians are racist. An Aboriginal film-maker and author, Stephen Hagen claimed that Australians are the most racist people in the developed world. Media portrayal is playing an important role when things like this happen. They should educate the Australian instead of discriminating them. Hence, in Australia is having a Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) with the purpose of providing multilingual and multicultural television and radio services in order to educate the Australians and reflect Australia’s multicultural society. Media in multicultural country like Australia and even Malaysia should be fair and stop discriminating the foreigners or aboriginal in order to educate the public. It is important for the public to understand them more and accept the differences in all different culture. By doing so, racism cases that happen now might become lesser and people tend to be more acceptable to other races. Make peace, no war.

“I do not believe that racism is at work in Australia.”  – Kevin Rudd,    Prime Minister of Australia (2007-2010) in 2010


Image URL: http://img1.123freevectors.com/wp-content/uploads/symbol_banners_big/082_say-no-to-racism-vector.gif


Cooke, D, & Griffin, N 2013, Taxi drivers bar Aboriginal actors, accessed 15/4/2013, http://www.theage.com.au/entertainment/theatre/taxi-drivers-bar-aboriginal-actors-20130502-2iu42.html

Creative Spirits n.d., Racism in Aboriginal Australia, accessed 15/4/2013, http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/people/racism-in-aboriginal-australia#toc0

Dreher, T (forthcoming 2014) „White Bread Media‟ in The Media and Communications in Australia eds. S Cunningham and S Turnbull, Allen and Unwin

Mastro, D, & Tukachinsky, R 2011, ‘The Influence of Exemplar Versus Prototype-Based Media Primes on Racial/Ethnic Evaluations’, Journal Of Communication, vol.61, no.5, pp916-937, accessed 15/4/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=affd9920-3683-437b-9efa-ad025fe11151%40sessionmgr13&vid=1&hid=25

Owusu, S 2010, ‘Using Media Literacy to Combat Racism’, Youth Media Reporter, vol.4, pp15-18, accessed 15/4/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f9399609-7a85-4942-b1a1-a8bca6c1f588%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=28

Bring them along

Internet and the information and communication technologies (ICT) have become an essential part of our daily life. When we need any information on particular stuff, we will search it through internet. When we are bored, we will log in to our social media sites to spend our free time. We need all these technologies to communicate with people around us, keep ourselves up to date all the time and others. In this digital era, most of the people now are using smart phones with all the brilliant application and function that makes our life become so convenient and efficient.

As the Internet and ICT is increasingly significant, ensuring equal access to electronic information and services for persons with disabilities and for the society has become important as well. In the previous time, people can only read news from newspaper, however it had become more advance which people can now actually read it in print or online format. They can even read it with their phone or tablet that can bring it anywhere. In addition, there is this text-to voice applications to listen to the news or podcasts to subscribe as well for the visually impaired individuals (Vicente & Lopez 2010). Sloan et.al (2000) thus mentioned that assistive technologies can potentially making that previously inaccessible information available to people with disabilities, mainly visually impaired people.

In the article of Goggin and Newell (2007), they argue that it is so difficult to bring about the accessible and inclusive technology. What’s the main reason behind it? One of the reasons would be disability still remains poorly understood by business actors and corporations. Hence it is not routinely considered by most companies in the ICT industries. Furthermore Vincente and Lopez (2010) said that ICT equipment is much more expensive for people with disabilities of all types since they have to incur extra costs associated with their impairments. As a result, people with disabilities are less likely to use ICT than those without impairments. In my opinion, it still takes some time for the industry to invest more on the disabilities ICT due to the cost and other issue. Besides, it is more challenging as well in creating the disabilities ICT. The developers and designers might lack of knowledge and understanding the accessibility and the need of disabilities. However, it is important to take the disabilities into consideration when developing new technology. They shouldn’t be neglected, they should be heard and seen. As the technologies are getting more advances, it is fair that the disabilities are able to enjoy it as well.

Image URL: http://cmdunit5exam.blogspot.com/2010_11_01_archive.html



Goggin, G, & Newell, C 2007, ‘The Business of Digital Disability’, Information Society, vol.23, no.3, pp159-168, accessed 9/5/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b37ed9f4-6684-4877-bf81-1b8285cb63b9%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=122

Sloan, D, Rowan, M, Booth, P, & Gregor, P 2000, ‘Ensuring the Provision of Accessible Digital Resources’, Journal Of Educational Media, vol.25, no.3, pp203-216, accessed 9/5/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6e352f49-db98-4c2a-a7ca-966ca17576e0%40sessionmgr112&vid=1&hid=124

Vicente, M, & López, A 2010, ‘A Multidimensional Analysis of the Disability Digital Divide: Some Evidence for Internet Use’, Information Society, vol.26, no.1, pp48-64, accessed 9/5/2013, http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1080/01615440903423245

Feudalisation of Internet

Before the internet was a centralized network where multiple terminals connect to one mainframe computer. The centralized network controls the communications and data processing. As the internet continues to evolve, it then becomes a distributed network which the multiple terminals connect to each other without any central computer.

Internet today allows everyone to distribute content over the internet freely. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ makes everyone have the opportunity to do so. Suffian (2009) mentioned that the election 2008 was influenced by the internet in expressing public desire for political change. The opposition parties of PKR, PAS and DAP dominated the political campaigns’ presence on the web. Anwar’s blog featured prominently as a source of information about the party, his campaign speeches and commentaries on developing events in the internet (Suffian 2009). The opposition party used internet in distributing content to the public. Same goes to this year as well, all parties are using internet to influence the public in making decision. I saw photos, videos, status flooded on my Facebook news feed. They are trying to get the public support by using the social media. The public as well, sharing the information and their opinion on the particular party they support on these social media platform too. Internet makes everyone can voice out their opinion easily.

However, the rise of all these information technology brings about many issues such as surveillance. Lyon defines surveillance as ‘‘any collecting or processing of personal data, whether identifiable or not, for the purposes of influencing or managing those whose data have been gathered” (as cited in Humphreys 2011). One of the example can be used is Facebook. Anything we share, any photo or page we like and others, Facebook is actually monitoring it. As mentioned in the lecture slide, the more they know about us, the more valuable our data is. So whatever we are doing, we are under surveillance.We are actually monitoring by the platform all the time no matter what we do on the internet. Every website we surf, every movie or song we download, they knew it more than us. We can’t recall back what we surf 5 years ago, but the platform knew it very well.  Humphreys (2011) mentioned that once user information is transmitted through a central server, it enables for corporate surveillance in that it creates a one-way system of monitoring behavior.


Image URL: http://www.mothersagainstsocialservices.org.uk/images/surveillance.jpg


Humphreys, L 2011, ‘Who’s Watching Whom? A Study of Interactive Technology and Surveillance’, Journal Of Communication, vol. 61, no. 4, pp575-595, accessed 1/5/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=33d7053e-217a-4f0e-bcb1-33e6e6ce1061%40sessionmgr10&vid=1&hid=28

Suffian, I 2009, Reflections of the 2008 Malaysian General Election: Role of the Internet in Political communications, accessed 1/5/2013, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/reports/pdf/SR005/Msia_Suffian.pdf

Elsevier in Trouble

What is Elsevier?

“Elsevier is an integral partner with the scientific, technical and health communities, delivering superior information, products and services that foster communication, build insights, and enable individual and collective advancement in scientific research and health care.” Student Consult (2013)

What happen to Elsevier?

According to Anderson (2012), academics have protested against Elsevier’s business practices called The Cost of Knowledge due to:

1)      They charge exorbitantly high prices for their journals.

2)      They sell journals in very large “bundles,” so libraries must buy a large set with many unwanted journals, or none at all. Elsevier thus makes huge profits.

3)      They support measures such as SOPA, PIPA and the Research Works Act, that aim to restrict the free exchange of information.




I click in one of the journal publish by Elsevier and I found out it cost $31.50. I think this is quite costly for students to purchase it. The merging of major publishing houses leads to an extreme increase in the cost of subscriptions such as Elsevier (Gould 2009). This is why the protest against Elsevier is supported by many academics. Vrieze (2012) mentioned that more than 2600 scientists have signed a petition at thecostofknowledge.com nine days after it started. Furthermore, they pledge that they are not going to publish, referee and do editorial work for Elsevier anymore. Dr. Daubechies (a mathematician) said that the social compact is broken at present by some publishing houses and Elsevier is the most extreme one (Lin 2012). I think this is not ethical in doing a business that way. Yes, profit is a must for business but however Elsevier shouldn’t be charging so high on the journals. In my opinion, it is good to have this boycott, it’s like alerting the publisher be ethical in a way to the public, especially students. It is impossible for them to bear the expensive cost.



These are part of the pledges I print screen from thecostofknowledge.com.

Internet makes everything easier, anything that we don’t understand, we just Google it. Before I blog about this, I don’t really know what it is about so I Google it and read many articles related to Elsevier. Same goes to books as well. In the past before the emerging of internet, we tend to go to bookstore and find any books we want. However as time goes by, things are available over the internet. We can found e-book, e-news and others on the web. Does internet makes our life easier? Yes, I’m truly agreed on this.  From the article of The Guardian (2013), it does mention about what is the future of academic publishing. The case of Elsevier created an impact on the online publishing environment. Will the cost of the journals go lower or higher price in the future? Is it possible to have free access of journal on the internet in the future? The Guardian (2013) said that some key individuals can make a serious influence. For instance:

1)      Editors – start or move journals to open access principles

2)      Developers – create web-based tools like academia.edu or peerevaluation.org.

3)      Authors – publish directly in open access journals

I think it is possible to have open access journals in the future if the key individuals work together and achieve it. Jha (2012) mentioned that Prof Finch (a sociologist at the University of Manchester) said open access journals would lead to efficiency benefits for researchers and produce economic growth.



Anderson, R 2012, Mysteries of the Elsevier Boycott, accessed 17/4/2013, http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/02/02/mysteries-of-the-elsevier-boycott/

Jha, A 2012, Open access is the future of academic publishing, says Finch report, accessed 18/4/2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/jun/19/open-access-academic-publishing-finch-report

Gould, T 2009, ‘The Future of Academic Publishing: Application of the Long-Tail Theory’, Publishing Research Quarterly, vol.25, no.4, pp232-245, accessed 18/4/2013, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d0b5c110-d877-41ba-bdaa-d92a58c95757%40sessionmgr113&vid=1&hid=125

Student Consult 2013, Who is Elsevier?, accessed 17/4/2013, http://www.studentconsult.com/about/whoweare.cfm

The Guardian 2013, Life after Elsevier: making open access to scientific knowledge a reality, accessed 17/4/2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2012/apr/24/life-elsevier-open-access-scientific-knowledge

Vrieze, J 2012, Thousands of Scientists Vow to Boycott Elsevier to Protest Journal Prices, accessed 18/7/2013, http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2012/02/thousands-of-scientists-vow-to-b.html